The SWS reference applications are executed by public-private partnerships, within the framework of national and international research and innovation programmes:
Dutch Topsector Water TKI Water Technology, Vitens N.V. Water Company
Freshkeeper, dual zone abstraction against water well salinization. Fresh and brackish groundwater are pumped simultaneously from different depths, providing control over the position of the fresh-brackish interface. The pumped brackish water may serve as an additional water source for high added value freshwater applications after desalination.
Dutch Knowledge for Climate research programme, local governments and horticulture farmers
Freshmaker, enlarging, protecting and utilizing freshwater lenses with horizontal wells. This technique was initiated by the recent development of horizontal directional drilled wells (HDDWs). HDDWs enable abstraction of deeper saltwater below the freshwater lens over a long transect, while a second, shallow HDDW allows for infiltration and abstraction of large freshwater volumes.
Dutch Knowledge for Climate research programme, local governments and horticulture farmers with support from the EU FP7 project DESSIN.
ASR-coastal, temporal storage of freshwater in brackish groundwater. Standard aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) approaches are unsuitable in brackish groundwater environments. ASR-coastal uses multiple partially penetrating wells to enable deep injection and shallow recovery of freshwater, which demonstrated a boost in freshwater recovery from less than 20% to more than 60% of the injected freshwater.